Kanpur is a metropolitan area in India
Inhabitants: 3,475,000 (World Rank 104)
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Kanpur is located on the banks of the river Ganga and is an important industrial centre. It has an area of over 1600 km² and had a population of around 4.13 million in the 2001 census. Owing to its industrial importance one of the Reserve Bank of India was established in the city. Kanpur is home to several most prestigious educational institutions of the country, including one of the Indian Institutes of Technology, Harcourt Butler Technological Institute (HBTI), CSJM University, University Institute of Engineering and Technology, Chandrashekhar Azad Agricultural University, and GSVM Medical College.

Nestled on the banks of the eternal Ganga, Kanpur stands as one of North India’s major industrial centres with its own historical, religious and commercial importance. Believed to be founded by Hindu King Chandel of the erstwhile state of Sachendi, Kanpur, it is believed by some, derived its name from Kanhiyapur, the town of Kanhiya (Lord Krishna). In the course of time, Kanhiyapur probably was abbreviated as Kanhapur and subsequently as Kanpur (the Anglicized spelling of which was Cawnpore during the British rule). Others believe that the name is derived from Karnapur and is associated with Karna, one of the heroes of Mahabharata. Duryodhana made Karna a king, seeing him as a fitting match to Arjuna, and gifted him this area; hence the name Karnapur, which later became Kanpur. Historically, Jajmau on the eastern outskirts of present day Kanpur is regarded as one of the most archaic townships of Kanpur district.
Kanpur's growth until the thirteenth century is shrouded in the mists of time. It is interesting to note that while no reference to Kanpur is found in history, the history of two of its suburbs, Jajmau and Bithoor, can be traced back to legendary times. Bithoor is located about 20 km upstream of the river from the city and is approximately 10 km from the IIT Kanpur Campus. Jajmau is about 8 km east of Kanpur city and is nearly 20 km downstream of the river from the IIT Campus. According to Hindu mythology, just after creating the universe, Lord Brahma performed the Ashvamedh Yajna (where a horse is let of freely and armies march along with it anyone who stops it has to face a war it was thus a sign of supremacy latter the horse returned back from where it started) at Bithoor (also known as Brahmavart) and established a shivalingam there. Moving further to later times, another mythological site at Bithoor is the Valmiki Ashram, where the famous sage Valmiki is supposed to have written the Sanskrit epic Ramayana. According to this epic, queen Seeta, on being exiled by King Ramachandra of Ayodhya, spent her days in seclusion at the ashram bringing up her twin sons Lava and Kush.
At Jajmau there are remains of an ancient fort, now surviving as a huge mound. Some recent excavations on this mound tend to prove that the site is very ancient indeed, perhaps dating back to the Vedic age. Popular legends have it that the fort belonged to Yayati, a king of the ancient Chandravanshi race, the eighth in succession to Lord Brahma. The famous Siddhnath temple of Lord Shiva and Siddha Devi temple at Jajmau belong to the Buddhist period. The place for a while was known as Siddhpuri.
Another interesting historical place near Kanpur is Shivrajpur. It is located around 20 km from Kanpur Railway Station. At Shivrajpur, there is an ancient temple built by Chandel Raja Sati Prasad in memory of his queen. This temple got built in a day[citation needed] and is situated on the banks of river Ganga. This temple is famous for its beautiful architectural work and its unique carving designs.
In Kanpur PARIHAR rulers of Kannauj hav also ruled more than 800 years. Kanpur has the great importance for the PARIHAR'S at the present day also.Thats why there are more RAJPUTS in KANPUR. PARIHAR king BHOJ , MIHIR and many other rulers have ruled in kanpur, because Kannuaj was the capital of PARIHARS and Kanpur is near by Kannauj so many PARIHAR rulers have ruled in Kanpur.
In 1207 AD Raja Kanti Deo of Prayag who was attached to the throne of Kannauj established the village Kohna, which later came to be known as Kanpur. Kanpur continued its association with Kannauj during the reins of Harsha Vardhan, Bhoj, Mihir, Jai Chand and early Muslim rulers. Later it came under the Jaunpur rulers and the Sur Dynasty. The first mention of Kanpur was made in 1579 during Sher Shah's regime. Up to the 1st half of the 18th century Kanpur continued to survive as an insignificant village. Its fate, however, took a new turn soon after. In May 1765, Shuja-ud-daula, the Nawab Wazir of Awadh, was defeated by the British near Jajmau. From 1773 to 1801, it was part of the Oudh kingdom and then came into the hands of the British. It was probably at this time that strategic importance of the site of Kanpur was realised by the British. European businessmen had by this time gradually started establishing themselves in Kanpur. In order to ensure protection to their lives and property the `Awadh local forces’ were shifted here in 1778. Kanpur passed into British hands under the treaty of 1801 with Nawab Saadat Ali Khan of Awadh. This forms a turning point in the history of Kanpur. Soon Kanpur became one of the most important military stations of British India. It was declared a district on 24 March 1803. South of Parmat were the British infantry lines and the parade grounds. Indian infantry occupied the space from the present Chunniganj to the Christ Church College. The Company Bagh was laid in 1847 and the construction of the Ganga canal was commenced in 1854.

In the 19th century Kanpur was an important British garrison with barracks for 7,000 soldiers. During the First War of Independence, (also known as the Indian Rebellion of 1857) 900 British were besieged in the fortifications for 22 days by rebels under Nana Sahib. They surrendered on the agreement that they would get safe passage to the nearby Suttee Chaura Ghat whereupon they would board barges and be allowed to go by river to Allahabad. However, as they boarded the boats an onlooker sounded a loud bugle, which resulted in chaos. Frightened boatmen jumped off and the British, coming straight from garrison carrying their arms and ammunition, fired upon them. Rebel Sepoys lost their patience and started firing indiscriminately. Many were killed and the remaining 200 British women and children were brought back to shore and sent to a building called the Bibighar (the ladies' home). After some time, when it was apparent that the British under General Henry Havelock were likely to retake Kanpur, it was suggested to execute their hostages. Four butchers from local market hacked them all after the rebel soldiers refused to carry out orders, three days before the British entered the city on July 18. The dismembered bodies were thrown into a deep well nearby. The British "Army of Retribution" under a General Neill retook the city and committed a series of atrocities against the rebel Sepoys and unfortunate civilians, including women, children and old men, caught in the immediate area. The Kanpur massacre, as well as similar events elsewhere, were seen by the British as an excuse for unrestrained vengeance .
The British dismantled by the Bibighar and raised and a memorial railing and a cross at the site of the well. In 1862 they built a church called All Souls' Cathedral in memory of those killed; renamed the Kanpur Memorial Church, it still stands at what was the north-east corner of Wheeler’s entrenchment . The marble gothic screen with the famous `mournful seraph’ was transferred to the churchyard after independence in 1947, and in its place a bust of Tantya Tope installed at NanaRao Park. The well is now bricked over, and the remains of a circular ridge are still there.

After 1857 it became an important center of the leather and textile industries. Government Harness and Saddler Factory was started for supplying leather material for army in 1860, followed by Cooper Allen & Co. in 1880. The first cotton textile mill, the Elgin Mills were started in 1862 and Moiré Mills in 1882. The British India Corporation (BIC) was headquartered here and led the development of many industries. The first Indian business house of Cawnpore was the firm NihalChand KishoriLal which set up a trading facility in 1857. This firm was a leader in Oil milling and had many oil mills spread across North India. The Juggilal Kamlapat Singhania family launched many industrial units between 1930 and 1970. The group is known as J K Group of Industries till date. The Jaipuria family contributed to the patriotic cause, by building the Swadeshi Cotton Mills in response to charges that the foreign rulers were raiding India of its cotton only to sell back textiles to the residents. Kanpur was known as the "Manchester of India" during the 20th Century. The NihalChand KishoriLal group (also knows as Kejriwal Group) over time diversified into flour milling, tea plantations and steel. They bought over in 1942 Cawnpore Flour Mills which had been established in 1886 by Edward Foy a Scotsman. New Cawnpore Flour Mills is at present one of the larger flour mills of North India and still managed by the same family. The steel industry was first brought to Kanpur by Singh Engineering and grew with JK Steel and the many ordanance factories which were set up. The Kejriwal's set up a ministeel mill on the outskirts of Kanpur which is now a leading long products manufacturer. Kanpur is also an important center for India's leather industry with numerous leading manufacturers, situated in the Jajmau Leather Industrial hub, which is exported worldwide. It is supposed to be the largest Sugar market in entire North India. As of now, the city also owns many leather tanneries, a 2-wheeler factory owned by LML Ltd., under collaboration with Italy's Piaggio; and over a dozen Defence Ordnance Factories such as Small-Arms Factory, Ordnance Parachute Factory etc. It is also home to the pan masala and gutkha industry. Kanpur in the recent years has seen a phase of changing industry with LML Plant slowing down production drastically,however there has been some growth in the plastics and the 3-wheeler automotive industries. Companies like Lohia Starlinger Ltd, JSL, Kashi Jewellers, Kanpur Plastipack Ltd, Ganesh Polytex, JS Automobile, KD Plastics, Modi Chemicals, Netplast have marked growth in Kanpur. Kanpur has by far been neglected by the local state government in spite of its huge contribution to the economy and revenue to the exchequer.It is quite past it's pristine glory and needs all-round government cooperation to excel and mark it's place once again in the Industrial scenario.
Many of the British contributed vigorously to charitable causes in the city by building the Ursula Horsman Hospital, the "Hallet" Hospital, Harcourt Butler Technological Institute, by protecting the Allen Forest (now a Zoo) and many other efforts. Most of these are now renamed, though a lot of residents still call them by their old names. The distortion of names is most visible at the railway crossing bridge next to the Railway Station, where the now-closed Murray Company is conveniently called Mari (Dead) Company.
As every other city, Kanpur too has its problems. Due to the onset of leather industries, the pollution level, especially air pollution has gone to a dangerously high level. Due to lack of proper planning this most populated city of northern India after Delhi is a victim of congestion and overcrowding. Urban planning has yet to evolve. Agencies responsible for it have still a long way to go from selling plots of land to planning wholesome development. A recent article in the Time Asia magazine says it all regarding the pollution in the city.
New industries like detergent, saddlery. food processing, pan masala, tea packaging, plastics(&packaging),jewellery manufacturing and exports, leather processing & goods have developed in the city.

Kanpur was a tinderbox in the independence and literary movements during the 1900-1950 period. The largest shopping centre is named Navin Market, after the poet Bal Krishna Sharma aka "Navin". Later poets included Gopal Das "Niraj" who also had a successful spell writing songs for "Bollywood" movies. Kanpur is also the birth place of Shyamlal Gupta `Parshad’, composer of the famous ditty Vijayee Vishwa Tiranga Pyara. The propagation and popularization of Hindi also owes much to this city, with great Hindu literatteurs like Acharya Mahavir Parasad Dwivedi, Ganesh Shankar Vidyarthi, Pratap Narain Mishra and Acharya Gaya Prasad Shukla `Sanehi’. The Agricultural University is named after the revolutionary Chandrashekhar Azad and the Medical College after Ganesh Shanker Vidyarthi; both men spent much time in Kanpur. While ChandraShekhar 'Azad' shot himself when surrounded by a huge posse of British soldiers at Alfred Park, Allahabad, Ganesh Shankar Vidyarthi was killed during the Hindu-Muslim riots of 1931 at Machli Bazar in Kanpur.
About 25 km from Kanpur is Bithoor. Legend has it that the wife of Lord Rama came to live at the ashram of the sage Valmiki, after Rama expelled her from Ayodhya. It was here that Sita gave birth to the twins Lav and Kush, and disappeared back into the earth (from where she was born, according to mythology) when confronted by a repentant Rama. Bithoor is also the site of the fort to which Nana Sahib escaped following the British retaking of Kanpur. Today, Bithoor is a tourist spot on the banks of the Ganges. Now Kanpur is stretching very fast with new residential complexes sprouting up everywhere. Tatya Tope Nagar is one of them. Named after the famous rebellion Tatya Tope, it is a place full of greenery. The Pandu river is close by.
The beautifully constructed, Shri Radhakrishna Temple (J.K. Temple) is a boon to the devotees. Built by J.K. Trust this architectural delight is a unique blend of ancient architecture with the modern. The even-level roofs of the mandaps have been provided with adequate ventilation for sufficient light and air. Of the five shrines, the central one is consecrated to Shri Radhakrishna and the others have idols of Shri Laxminarayan, Shri. Ardhanarishwar, Shri Narmadeshwar and Shri Hanuman.