Taipei is the capital of Taiwan
Inhabitants: 6,700,000 (World Rank 44)
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Taipei (traditional Chinese: 臺北市 or 台北市; simplified Chinese: 台北市; Hanyu Pinyin: Táiběi Shì; Tongyong Pinyin: Táiběi Shìh, Taiwanese Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Tâi-pak-chhī; Zhuyin Fuhao: ㄊㄞˊ ㄅㄟˇ ㄕˋ) has been the capital of the Republic of China (ROC) on Taiwan since 1949. It is situated on the Danshui (Danshuei) River, almost at the northern tip of the country, about 25 km southwest of Keelung, which is its port on the Pacific Ocean. Another coastal city, Danshui, is about 20 km northwest at the river's mouth on the Taiwan Strait.
Taipei lies in the relatively narrow, bowl-shaped valley of the Danshui and two of its main tributaries, the Keelung and Xindian (Sindian) rivers. The generally low-lying terrain of the central areas on the western side of the municipality slopes upward to the south and east and especially to the north, where it reaches 1,120 metres at Mount Qixing (七星山). The climate is humid subtropical, with hot, muggy, rainy summers and cool, damp winters. It is also the political, economic, and cultural center of the country.
Taipei City, the Taipei County, and the nearby Keelung City together form the Taipei metropolitan area but are administered under different local government bodies. Taipei City is a special municipality administered directly under the Executive Yuan, while Taipei County and Keelung City are administered as part of Taiwan Province. Taipei commonly refers to the whole metropolitan area, while Taipei City refers to the city proper. Taipei's city government is headed by a mayor who is appointed by the president of the republic on recommendation of the premier. A secretary-general assists the mayor.
The National Palace Museum on the outskirts of the city houses one of the world's largest collections of ancient Chinese artifacts, calligraphy, paintings, and porcelain. The National Chiang Kai-shek Memorial Hall is an impressive monument built in classical Chinese style. The Longshan Temple — dedicated to Guan Yin, the Buddhist Bodhisattva of Mercy — is considered the best example of temple architecture in Taiwan.
A popular recreation area is nearby Yangmingshan (陽明山). Both the mountain and the town of Beitou at its base are known for their hot springs. Bitan (Green Lake) has boating and water sports. There are ocean beaches nearby.
Taipei is part of a major industrial area. Most of Taiwan's textile factories are here, and other products include electronics, electrical machinery and appliances, wires and cables, and refrigeration equipment. Shipbuilding, including yachts and other pleasure craft, is done in the port of Keelung east of the city. Railways and bus lines connect Taipei with all parts of the island. The city is served by the Taiwan Taoyuan International Airport west of the city in Taoyuan. The freeway system is excellent.
Taipei was founded in the early 18th century and became an important center for overseas trade in the 19th century. The Japanese acquired the island in 1895 after the Sino-Japanese War and made Taipei the capital. The Republic of China took over the island in 1945 after Japan's defeat in World War II. The city became the provisional capital of the Kuomintang (KMT) government in December 1949 after the Communist government was formally installed in mainland China.