Newcastle upon Tyne
Newcastle upon Tyne is a metropolitan area in United Kingdom
Inhabitants: 1,060,000 (World Rank 440)
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Newcastle upon Tyne (pronunciation (help·info)) (usually shortened to Newcastle) is a city in Tyne and Wear, England, historically part of the English county of Northumberland. The city lies on the banks of the River Tyne. The city owes its name to the Norman castle built in 1080, by Robert II of Normandy, the eldest son of William the Conqueror.
Newcastle was historically a Roman settlement. The city grew as an important centre for the wool trade and it later became a major coal mining area. The port developed in the 16th century and, along with the shipyards lower down the river was amongst the world's largest shipbuilding and ship-repairing centres. The city is also an educational centre, with two universities.
The city was founded in the 2nd century, during the times of Roman occupation, under the name Pons Aelius. The medieval Latin name is Novum Castrum super Tynum (Newcastle upon Tyne). The city is the 20th most populous in England; the larger Tyneside conurbation, of which Newcastle forms part, is the sixth most populous conurbation in the United Kingdom. Newcastle is a member of the English Core Cities Group and (with Gateshead) the Eurocities network of European cities.
People from Newcastle and surrounding areas are commonly called Geordies. The Latin term Novocastrian can equally be applied to residents of any place called Newcastle.