The Republic of Equatorial Guinea (República de Guinea Ecuatorial, Spanish pronunciation: [reˈpuβlika ðe ɣiˈnea ekwatoˈɾjal]) is a country in Central Africa. It is one of the smallest countries in continental Africa, and comprises two regions: Río Muni, continental region including several offshore islands; and Insular Region containing Annobón island in the South Atlantic Ocean, and Bioko island (formerly Fernando Po) that contains the capital, Malabo.
Annobón is the southernmost island of Equatorial Guinea and is situated just north of the equator. Bioko island is the northernmost point of Equatorial Guinea. Between the two islands and to the east is the mainland region. Equatorial Guinea borders Cameroon on the north, Gabon on the south and east, and the Gulf of Guinea on the west, where the island nation of São Tomé and Príncipe is located between Bioko and Annobón. Formerly the Spanish colony called Spanish Guinea, its post-independence name is suggestive of its location near both the Equator and the Gulf of Guinea. It is one of the territories in mainland Africa where Spanish is an official language, besides the Spanish exclaves of Ceuta and Melilla, and the UN-recognised but Moroccan-occupied Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic (Western Sahara).
Equatorial Guinea is the smallest country in continental Africa in terms of population. (Seychelles and São Tomé and Príncipe are smaller in terms of area, and the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic has a smaller population but is disputed.) It is also the smallest United Nations member from continental Africa. The discovery of sizeable petroleum reserves in recent years is altering the economic and political status of the country.
Despite its name, no part of Equatorial Guinea's territory lies on the equator.